:: Typhoid ::

What is Typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever is a water and food born disease. It caused by Salmonella typhi, the typhoid bacillus.

Longtime ago typhoid fever remains a serious public health problem throughout the world, especially in several Asian regions, in parts of South-East Asia, Africa and South America, with an estimated 16–33 million cases and 500.000 to 600.000 deaths annually. Present with the developed of typhoid vaccines, numbers of cases and deaths are much lesser.
In virtually all endemic areas, the incidence of typhoid fever is highest in children from 5–19 years old but it can infect everybody. The disease is almost exclusively transmitted by food and water contaminated by the faeces and urine of patients and carriers. Polluted water is the most common source of typhoid transmission. In addition, shellfish taken from sewage-contaminated beds, vegetables fertilized with night-soil and eaten raw, contaminated milk and milk products have been shown to be a source of infection.
Typhoid fever has been virtually eliminated in most areas of the industrialized world with the advent of proper sanitary facilities.

What is the symptoms?
It is characterized by the sudden onset of sustained fever, severe headache, nausea, loss of appetite, constipation or sometimes diarrhea. Severe forms have been described with mental dullness and meningitis.

Diagnosis could be made by doing blood examination. Doctor will ask to check Anti Salmonella IgM or Salmonella PCR to diagnosed the disease.

How do we treat Typhoid fever?
You should visit your doctor. Antibiotic therapy is the best way to kill the bacillus. Case-fatality rates of 10% can be reduced to less than 1% with appropriate antibiotic therapy. If you have fever more than 2 days, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting or the symptom is worsening, it is better to see your doctor as soon to make sure if you’re infected.

How do we prevent Typhoid fever disease?
1. Keep the environment clean is very important to prevent the disease.
2. Protect your drink water and food from flies, insects and rats because they are vectors of typhoid.
3. Wash your hand before taken food.
4. It's better to have hot plate food than cold dishes.
5. It's better to wash fruits and vegetables with clean water if they're eaten raw.
6. Vaccination must be the best choice for you to protect your self.

Ty21a (oral vaccine) and Vi (inject vaccines) has been proposed by WHO in order to make future recommendations for countries severely affected by typhoid. Please contact your doctor to confirm.