:: Amoebiasis ::

What is amoebiasis?
Amoebiasis is currently defined as infection with the protozoan parasite Amoeba. Normally resident in the large bowel, amoeba occasionally penetrate the intestinal mucosa disseminate to other organs.
Amoebiasis occurs globally and is an important public health problem in areas South America and Africa, and South Asia.

How does the disease spread?
Amoeba spreads by the faecal-oral transmission of amoebic cysts. The disease is almost exclusively transmitted by food and water contaminated by the faeces of patients. Flies and insects also spread this disease.

How do we know the symptoms?
This is characterized by bloody diarrhea. Some patients have fever, abdominal cramps, rectal pain and mucous in stools, even these features do not always accompany bloody diarrhea.
It is often gradual in onset, and patients may be ill for two or three weeks before coming to a health centre for treatment. Constitutional symptoms are generally not marked, and fewer than half of patients are febrile.
Some patient have asymptomatic (no sign) infection with Amoeba, during which only amoebic cysts are found in the stool. Most patients do not realize until they found amoebic cysts in stool examination.

What is the complication?
Amoebiasis is characterized by pathologic lesions in the colonic mucosa, and serologic evidence of infection. Infection may spread to other organs, especially the liver.

Diagnosis based on microscopic examination of stool
Microscopic examination of the stool must be done to detect amoebic trophozoites or amoebic cyst by a reliable laboratory. If first examination of patient’s stool failed to find trophozoide, the second and third examination must be done until stated negative. Amoeba should be specifically identified and, if present, treated.

Therapy for amoebiasis
Patient should visit doctor. Only doctors can decide the diagnosis and prescribe the medicine. Metronidazole is the drug of choice. The response of intestinal amoebiasis to appropriate treatment is usually rapid, distinct improvement being apparent within two to three days. Patient must go to 3 stoll examination to prove trophozoide or cyst negative after treatment.

How do we prevent amoebiasis ?
Some tips to avoid amoebiasis,
1. Keep the environment clean is very important to prevent the disease.
2. Protect your drink water and food from dirt and insects.
3. Wash your hand before taken food. It's better to have hot plate food than cold dishes.
4. It's better to wash fruits and vegetables with clean water if they're eaten raw.

Is there vaccine to prevent amoebiasis?
No vaccine available for the disease.